Some settlements are built near or in the mountains, like Walinor and Hūsh. The Dwarves, led by Dolgan, dwelt around the Towers, in high villages and farms with Caldara as their capital. Also there were the mines Mac Owyn Dur, Mac Bronin Alrot and Mac Mordain Cadal which passed through the mountains.
During Riftwar, Dwarves of the Grey Towers attacked the Tsurani seven times aided by Tomas/Ashen-Shugar. They decimated the aliens but they did not decrease in number, unlike the scarcely populated dwarves.
In spite of Duke Borric's and Duke Brucal's effort to dislodge them during the first two months, the Tsurani moved along a line from the eastern face of the Grey Towers. The Tsurani had dug strongholds with a minimum of 200 defenders and held there, with suspected reinforcement companies; any position attacked was quick to get reinforcements.
Winters in the foothills of the range are known for being especially harsh.